EFFECTS OF PICTURES ABOUT MEMORY & LEARNING
Language instruction materials has become increasingly highly visual--from pictures upon flashcards for vocabulary learning, to richly illustrated textbooks, to multimedia system software, to films and films. In this article, we all consider what the huge benefits and disadvantages might be of using visual material. What happens once we look at photos, or by written phrases, or in pictures and words together? Is there a additional effect once we hear phrases spoken along with visual or written material? We find evidence that visual materials has solid influences on memory and learning, but its effectiveness to get language learning depend upon which goal in the instruction as well as student learning abilities and preferences.
The goal of my classes for first-year college students is to encourage and develop capability in speaking and experiencing English, while contrasted with ability in reading and writing, so I often make use of visual material to move students' interest away from the written word. I actually sometimes use movies and songs with video clips and I have developed many games that have been described in previous content articles (Klinger 1999, 1998) and they are available online by http://www2.ice.usp.ac.jp/wklinger/QA/cardgameshome.htm/.
1 game I use is a set of several dozen drawings, without sayings, of everyday events and actions. Players in return put down a card to generate a continuing tale of so what happened one day. The play is noisy and lively since a player using a card that is certainly more associated with the exposed card may challenge somebody who tries to put down a less related greeting card. Almost always, nevertheless , the phrases the students spontaneously say will be grammatically wrong, so in certain classes We ask the students to write away sentences ahead of time and verify them intended for correct sentence structure and use.
Another video game is a pair of question and answer credit cards. Each couple of cards has got the same picture but diverse captions; the purpose of the game should be to find who in your band of players
a couple of
has the answer card to your question credit card. This video game can also be played without written captions, in order that players supply their own sentences, but for a report to find out as to the extent images might make what and phrases memorable, We used a version with well prepared captions.
One day, I revealed the credit cards on an OHP and the students repeated the sentences after me. While playing the game, the student which has a question cards might need to repeat the sentence among 1 to 4 times ahead of finding who the answer greeting card. The game was played for least three times, followed by game titles such as " Slap! ” or " Concentration” where the sentences had been said some more times. In the next class the next week, We handed out bedsheets showing only the pictures and asked the groups to create whatever that they remembered, regardless if it was only 1 word, and even to write in Japanese in the event that they couldn't remember the English. Using this experiment, I concluded that the images themselves were quite remarkable, but if the expect was that images would help sentences and spelling being memorable, they were not specifically effective. A few of the results are as follows: One set of greeting cards read: Q: What are you going to give your mom for Mother's Day? A: I haven't made a decision yet. Might be flowers!! Out of 50 evaluation papers, 34 had
full, if not really grammatically right, sentences. " Give” appeared 16 instances. " Present” appeared in 24 answers, sometimes as a verb, such as " What did you present Single mother's Day? ” or as a noun in phrases just like " made the decision a present. ”
Q: What are you going to do this weekend if it down pours? " If it rains” was
given in 10 responses, and " whether it will wet day, ” " in case it is rain, ” " when it is rainy, ” " whether it rain, ” and " if it's rain” were given once each. This kind of question asked: Have you at any time gone right up Mt. Fuji? " Climbed, ” including " crimbed” and " clumbed, ” was written in 16 replies, ” " seen” in 6 replies, " recently been to”...