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For various other uses, see Mesopotamia (disambiguation).
Map showing the extent of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia (from the Ancient Greek: Μεσοποταμία: "[land] between rivers"; Arabic: بلاد الرافدين (bilād al-rāfidayn); Syriac: ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ(beth nahrain): " land of rivers" ) is a toponym for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, corresponding to modern-day Iraq and to a lesser extent northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey and smaller regions of southwestern Iran. Generally considered to be the cradle of civilization in the Western world, Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer and the Akkadian, Babylonian and Assyrian empires, all native towards the territory of modern-day Iraq. In the Iron Age, it was manipulated by the Neo-Assyrianand Neo-Babylonian empires. The indigenous Sumerians and Akkadians (including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia from the beginning of written background (c. 3100 BC) for the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, when it was conquered by theAchaemenid Empire. It fell to Alexander the Great in 332 BC and, following his death, it became portion of the Greek Seleucid Empire. Around one hundred and fifty BC, Mesopotamia was beneath the control of the Parthians. Mesopotamia started to be a battleground between the Romans and Parthians, with parts of Mesopotamia arriving under dying Roman control. In ADVERTISING 226, this fell to the Sassanid Persians, and continued to be under Local rule before the 7th 100 years Arab Islamic conquest of the Sassanid Disposition. A number of generally neo Assyrian and Christian native Mesopotamian states been with us between the very first century BC and 3 rd century ADVERTISEMENT, including Adiabene, Osroene andHatra. Contents �[hide]� * 1 Etymology 5. 2 Geography 5. 3 History * 3. 1 Periodization * 4 Language and writing * 4. 1 Literature 2. 5 Science and technology 2. 5. 1 Mathematics * a few. 2 Astronomy 2. 5. 3 Medicine * your five. 4 Technology 2. 6 Religion and philosophy * 6. 1 Philosophy * 7 Culture * 7. 1 Festivals 5. 7. 2 Music * several. 3 Games * 7. 4 Family life 2. 7. 5 Burials * 8 Economy and cultivation * 9 Government * being unfaithful. 1 Kings * 9. 2 Power * being unfaithful. 3 Warfare 5. 9. 4 Laws * 10 Art * 11 Architecture * 12 References * 13 Further reading * 14 External links| -------------------------------------------------
map exhibiting the Tigris–Euphrates river system, which in turn defines Mesopotamia The local toponym Mesopotamia comes from the ancient Greek root words and phrases μέσος (meso) " middle" and ποταμός (potamia) " river" and literally means " (Land) between rivers". The most ancient known happening of the identity Mesopotamia originates from the Anabasis Alexandri, which was written in the late second century AD but especially refers to options from the period of Alexander the Great. In the Anabasis, Mesopotamia utilized to designate the property east of the Euphrates in north Syria. The Aramaic term biritum/birit narim corresponded to a similar geographical concept. Later, the term Mesopotamia was more generally put on the each of the lands involving the Euphrates and the Tigris, thereby incorporating not merely parts of Syria but as well almost all of Iraq and southeastern Turkey. The adjoining steppes to the west of the Euphrates plus the western component to the Zagros Mountainsare also often included under the larger term Mesopotamia. A further distinction is usually made between Top or Northern Mesopotamia and Lower or Southern Mesopotamia. Upper Mesopotamia, often known as the Jezirah, may be the area between the Euphrates as well as the Tigris from their sources straight down to Baghdad. Lower Mesopotamia is the region from Baghdad to the Persian Gulf. In modern day academic usage, the term Mesopotamia often also offers a chronological connotation. It will always be used to designate the area till the Muslim conquests, with names like Syria, Jezirah and Iraq being used to describe the region after that particular date. It has been...
References: 5. Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (10, 000–8700 BC)
2. Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (8700–6800)
2. Akkadian Empire (~2350–2100 BC)
2. Ur 3 period (2112–2004 BC)
* break: Minoan Eruption (c. 1620 BC)
* Late Bronze Age group
* Kassite dynasty in Babylon, (ca. 1595 BC–1155 BC)
5. collapse: Bronze Age collapse (12th to 11th c